Category: Extra credit

In Bolter and Grusin’s article “Remediation”,  the ways in which media can be manipulated are explored. Specifically they discuss the way one media can be reworked into the form of another in order to establish a new meaning or significance. This means that media is not necessarily distinct from media culture and the influences of other media. And in a growing technological economy, the ways in which media can be shared and adapted are becoming endless. it has also become significantly easier to “remediate” media since tools to do so are more readily available. Since remediation has become so embedded into society, it is also becoming difficult to define media as its own entity. For instance, a remake of a song is still considered its own song as indicated by the artist themselves. However a song that has been created by another artist is become remediated and the lines can become blurry as to what song is being played and where credit must be given. Still remediation is an important part of the modern technological atmosphere and society as a whole since it stimulates creativity and ingenuity (and many believe progress) , so Bolter and Grusin explain some changes media can go through in order to “remediate” in this article.


Extra Credit – Remediation Justin Young

In the article “Remediation” Bolter and Grusin explain that there are many different types of media such as movies, music, art, etc… They look at how people take for example many different song samples and put them all together to make one song, remediation goes beyond just creating one simple thing it takes many different aspects of some genre and combines them to make something new. It is kind of like updating something that has long been forgotten to bring it back to its glory. Remediation allows everyone to create something and be able to share it with society. Taking something that people don’t really realize can be done and brings something new to the table. Remediation is becoming incredibly popular and is being done more and more. People are taking all kinds of things from analog records and putting them with new mp3’s and creating an amazing song. Remediation allows people to express themselves in many ways and put their own spin onto something.


In their article “Remediation”  Bolter and Grusin talk about media, and how it doesn’t necessarily stand alone.  There are adaptations of movies and books, and remixes of songs that contain many different samples.  They derive the title of the article from the actual definition of this phenomena.  Remediation is the “Representation of one media in another”(45).  They go onto argue that due to our recent strides in technology, with digital art and media programs such as photoshop or Garage band, that everyone has the potential to create and then share their media, via the internet or social networks.  This ease has created a digital media age that allows people to come into contact with much more art and media than ever was possible before.  There are many different forms of remediation.  it can be as simple as taking an old record, and updating from an analog version to a digital version.  The thing is the same, however now it exists in a different way, and is presented in a different, even if subtle way.  Remediation can also be as extreme as taking hundreds of samples from different songs and creating your own new composition.  It is old media being reconstituted and presented in an entirely different way, but when broken down, is entirely made up of pieces of media that already existed.  There are dozens of different ways that remediation can take shape, from a simple remake, where the story is the same, but everything is more modernized or stylized a different way, all the way to an entire revisualization, using only the core.  For example, I recently read that the show Sons of Anarchy is just a very re-stylized version of Shakespeare’s Hamlet.  The core of the story or the media is there, but the way it is conceptualized is completely different.    This creates a new paradigm that we have to address as the digital media age progresses and flourishes even more to new places that we can’t even imagine.  Remediation is becoming an increasingly large part of the media we view, and understanding this helps us to know even more about the different media that we consume.

In this reading, Horst describes an interview she had with a twelve-year-old girl about what she did for entertainment. She found that children are “growing up in a media ecology where digital and networked media are playing an increasingly central role.” In this, there are three different ways people can become involved with this technology: hanging out, messing around, and geeking out. The first genre, hanging out, is defined as using technology to be with or to make friends. The geeking out genre is defined as using the technology because they have a strong desire to use it. The final genre is messing around, and it is the medium between hanging out and geeking out. This genre is defined as using a technology because there was a desire to use it with friends. There can be other classifications in between these three genres, but this basically describes the intention of why people use new media.

Mul speaks about how media in the long run is mediator in presenting information but plays a crucial role in this process.  He explains in further detail how art is being continuously changed into a form of technology in a digital format.  Artists can no longer use the analog technologies they used before in an analog format due to modern pressures to put art on the internet and in other more modern ways.  He explains that the argument against this is that digitizing art makes it easier to produce and therefore not as original or sentimental.  Thus, also making it easier to infringe upon and copy in a moment’s time.  De mul than talks about how the aesthetic experience of an analog photo vs. digital is no different.

Later, he compares cult value with exhibition value. He states that cult value is more about aura and uniqueness. Whereas exhibition value has replaced cult value because it is now easier to copy art and people don’t care as much about the original artwork.  They can easily be changed and manipulated to be completely different works of art which changes the original meaning.

The extra credit reading I chose is Media Culture and society by Mark Deuze.  In this article, Mark think we are living a media life that people could construct lives and identities of themselves and others. He uses the Truman Show to represent that mediated experiences are part of reality, and it is very important for people to study life in media as our world has been going through changes that the society becoming individualized and globalization,  also compares the media life with the earlier concepts in communication and media studies, for instance as Marshall McLuhan’s perspective on media as extensions of mankind. He concludes that those perspectives are brilliant but still limited compared to the real media life. He then mention the Denis McQuail’s discussion to premise the media life view on people’s “voluntary engagement of the public in it own immersion in a rich and varied world of mediated experience”.


In this article Manovich explains key principles that differentiate between the old media and the new media. first principal  is numerical representation, digital code ones and zeros is what all  new media artifacts boils down to .  As consequence the are mathematically described and can be manipulated through algorithms. The second principal is modularity. New media objects are composed of many independent parts . This principal makes new media artifacts flexible in terms of modifying the new media artifact in other words any part of the new media can be modified without affecting the rest for example, html document (webpages) we can moody picture that is in the html document with out affecting the rest of the document. The third principle is automation which builds on the first two principles .New media functions can be preformed automatically for example searching through a database. The fourth principal is Variability, which is new media artifacts are not something absolute meaning a lot of changes can happen to that artifact further more many instances of that artifact can exist in the same time. The last principle is transcoding. Transcoding is basically the idea that new media artifacts have two layer , the computational layer  which basically the language of the computer that is not understandable by humans and the cultural layer , which the understandable way that new media is presented to people . 

In this reading Baym defines seven key concepts(Interactivity, temporal structure, social cues, storage, replicability, reach, and mobility) about new media that has the potential of differentiating new media from one another. In addition, these concepts help us to gain rich understanding of new media and make us think in depth about different aspects of new media and what new media present.


Baym starts with the concept of interactivity. He explains how the interactivity that the new media offers is kind of different on what we had before new media for instant, being able to keep in touch with people who do not live in the same place that we live any more.   Temporal stricture of the medium which is divided further to two categories. If the medium offers face to face conversation than it’s Asynchronous like phone calls or Skype. If ones respond to another using a medium is not necessary immediate like emails than it’s Synchronous.  Baym believes that it’s important for us to understand to what extant new media is able to provide social cues and how this affect our interaction with the each other. A powerful feature of new media is storage. New media can be stored on a lot of devices that have computing features and be there for ever if desired. Thus allowing it’s to be archived and potentially searched if needed. Baym explains the ability that new media have to reach people. New media can be used to reach every one who use it. New media also is very flexible in terms of mobility. We carry the new media everywhere we go, we have it on our phone laptops …etc.

Hamad Alrwais

This reading addresses fandom and begins with the example of a well-known SNL skit involving William Shattner and a group of trekkies (Star Trek fans).  In this skit, the show portrays the combination of obsession and delusion that is very evident with many fan groups.  The author, Henry Jenkins, goes on to explain how fans (or fanatics) are extreme followers to the extent of madness.  He even goes as far as to break this madness down into the masculine and feminine sides of fandom.  Taste is brought up, as it is mentioned that fans tend to try justifying their own pleasures as being normal or tasteful by comparing themselves to others who are even more extreme or ridiculous.  Fans can also be textual poachers, meaning that they take bits and pieces from the media that they follow, and apply them to their own lives.  Jenkins argues that “fans are not unique in their status as textual poachers, yet, they have developed poaching into an art form” (27).  He goes on to describe the conflicts between fans and producers and how the producers are more interested in what makes money, instead of what makes the fans happy.  On the topic of textual poachers, Jenkins asserts that fans are not only consumers of the media, but they also manufacture their own creations out of the text that they have poached.  They also communicate with one another in a way that makes this poaching a culture in of itself.

Mark Deuze argues that in the contemporary society where media so pervasive and ubiquitous, it has been weaved into our lives and becomes the building blocks of societies. We are living a media life. He thinks that within the context of media, people construct lives and identities of selves and others.

Deuze compares the media life point of view with earlier points of view in communication and media studies, such as Marshall McLuhan’s perspective on media as extensions of man. He concludes that those viewpoints are brilliant but still limited compared with the notion of media life due to the increasing amount of invisible media. He draws on Denis McQuail’s discussion to premise the media life view on people’s ‘voluntary engagement of the public in its own immersion in a rich and varied world of mediated experience.’ He states that media are everywhere, and therefore nowhere.

Deuze uses the Truman Show to show that mediated experiences are part of reality, and what’s different about real life from the show in terms of media life perspective, is that escape of mediated existence is impossible.

Deuze thinks it’s important for people to study life in media as our world has been going through constant changes like the world becoming both larger (individualized) and smaller (globlization).
Deuze’s article ends with a discussion on the benefits and inevitability of conducting media studies in the view of media life. He cites on Henry Jenkins about escape as a flawed option, as there is not a ‘true’ self for human beings. He also points out the importance of interpreting media life for the purpose of future potential change.