Category: Reading summary

In Bolter and Grusin’s article “Remediation”,  the ways in which media can be manipulated are explored. Specifically they discuss the way one media can be reworked into the form of another in order to establish a new meaning or significance. This means that media is not necessarily distinct from media culture and the influences of other media. And in a growing technological economy, the ways in which media can be shared and adapted are becoming endless. it has also become significantly easier to “remediate” media since tools to do so are more readily available. Since remediation has become so embedded into society, it is also becoming difficult to define media as its own entity. For instance, a remake of a song is still considered its own song as indicated by the artist themselves. However a song that has been created by another artist is become remediated and the lines can become blurry as to what song is being played and where credit must be given. Still remediation is an important part of the modern technological atmosphere and society as a whole since it stimulates creativity and ingenuity (and many believe progress) , so Bolter and Grusin explain some changes media can go through in order to “remediate” in this article.



In their article “Remediation”  Bolter and Grusin talk about media, and how it doesn’t necessarily stand alone.  There are adaptations of movies and books, and remixes of songs that contain many different samples.  They derive the title of the article from the actual definition of this phenomena.  Remediation is the “Representation of one media in another”(45).  They go onto argue that due to our recent strides in technology, with digital art and media programs such as photoshop or Garage band, that everyone has the potential to create and then share their media, via the internet or social networks.  This ease has created a digital media age that allows people to come into contact with much more art and media than ever was possible before.  There are many different forms of remediation.  it can be as simple as taking an old record, and updating from an analog version to a digital version.  The thing is the same, however now it exists in a different way, and is presented in a different, even if subtle way.  Remediation can also be as extreme as taking hundreds of samples from different songs and creating your own new composition.  It is old media being reconstituted and presented in an entirely different way, but when broken down, is entirely made up of pieces of media that already existed.  There are dozens of different ways that remediation can take shape, from a simple remake, where the story is the same, but everything is more modernized or stylized a different way, all the way to an entire revisualization, using only the core.  For example, I recently read that the show Sons of Anarchy is just a very re-stylized version of Shakespeare’s Hamlet.  The core of the story or the media is there, but the way it is conceptualized is completely different.    This creates a new paradigm that we have to address as the digital media age progresses and flourishes even more to new places that we can’t even imagine.  Remediation is becoming an increasingly large part of the media we view, and understanding this helps us to know even more about the different media that we consume.

In this reading, Horst describes an interview she had with a twelve-year-old girl about what she did for entertainment. She found that children are “growing up in a media ecology where digital and networked media are playing an increasingly central role.” In this, there are three different ways people can become involved with this technology: hanging out, messing around, and geeking out. The first genre, hanging out, is defined as using technology to be with or to make friends. The geeking out genre is defined as using the technology because they have a strong desire to use it. The final genre is messing around, and it is the medium between hanging out and geeking out. This genre is defined as using a technology because there was a desire to use it with friends. There can be other classifications in between these three genres, but this basically describes the intention of why people use new media.

The extra credit reading I chose is Media Culture and society by Mark Deuze.  In this article, Mark think we are living a media life that people could construct lives and identities of themselves and others. He uses the Truman Show to represent that mediated experiences are part of reality, and it is very important for people to study life in media as our world has been going through changes that the society becoming individualized and globalization,  also compares the media life with the earlier concepts in communication and media studies, for instance as Marshall McLuhan’s perspective on media as extensions of mankind. He concludes that those perspectives are brilliant but still limited compared to the real media life. He then mention the Denis McQuail’s discussion to premise the media life view on people’s “voluntary engagement of the public in it own immersion in a rich and varied world of mediated experience”.


This reading addresses fandom and begins with the example of a well-known SNL skit involving William Shattner and a group of trekkies (Star Trek fans).  In this skit, the show portrays the combination of obsession and delusion that is very evident with many fan groups.  The author, Henry Jenkins, goes on to explain how fans (or fanatics) are extreme followers to the extent of madness.  He even goes as far as to break this madness down into the masculine and feminine sides of fandom.  Taste is brought up, as it is mentioned that fans tend to try justifying their own pleasures as being normal or tasteful by comparing themselves to others who are even more extreme or ridiculous.  Fans can also be textual poachers, meaning that they take bits and pieces from the media that they follow, and apply them to their own lives.  Jenkins argues that “fans are not unique in their status as textual poachers, yet, they have developed poaching into an art form” (27).  He goes on to describe the conflicts between fans and producers and how the producers are more interested in what makes money, instead of what makes the fans happy.  On the topic of textual poachers, Jenkins asserts that fans are not only consumers of the media, but they also manufacture their own creations out of the text that they have poached.  They also communicate with one another in a way that makes this poaching a culture in of itself.

Dueze Summary – Logan Margulis

In his article, Mark Deuze attempts to explain the world we live in and how it is an always-changing society. He exemplifies the fact the media has become a constant influence in everyday life.  The reasoning behind this has to do with how easy it is now to access news, blogs, all other media in an instantaneous manner. It seems that is also always up-to-date. No longer are professionals such as writers and producers the only people who can create media that everyone can see and is distributed. For first time, we actually have the ability to control our own media.  In todays world, instead of the New York Times being our daily news, some people follow Facebook religiously for their current information.

Deuze Reading Summary

In the reading Deuze starts off by saying how today’s society is liquid and constantly changing due to technology. He states that as media becomes ubiquitous it forms the building blocks to a constant remix in our lives and makes it invisible, to a point where Friedrich Kittler says we are blind to that which shapes our lives most. We live in a world that we have the media and technologies so ingrained in our lives that we create some of the media and since we have become blind to this media in our lives that we actually are shaping the media.

In his article Media Life Mark Deuze sets off to describe a new reality in which we all are now immersed.  He firsts refers to this reality as a “mediopolis” which is “a comprehensively mediated public space where media underpin and overarch the experiences and expressions of everyday life”.  This media life has come into existence because we now are living in an age of constantly flowing and accessible information, and also because we are at the center of it.  We control the media we experience, and we ourselves are a source of this media.  We are a part of this ‘media life’ when we post to facebook, twitter, or even this blog.  Not only are we seeing all of these user-centered media, but we are also creating them.  Deuze goes on to quote Bolter and Grusen by saying “the incresasing invisibility of media is exemplified by their disappearing from consciousness… and it comes to shape our sense of reality” .  The main point of this article is that we are constantly adding so much personal media to the ‘world’ and we are also constantly absorbing news via facebook or other outlets that it has become a part of our reality, and we are the ones who are shaping it.  They days where someone got all of their info for the day via newspaper or a single news broadcast are gone, now news is constantly streaming at us, and how we react to it shapes the “media life” that we are living.  We are living In the media, rather than with it, and it is this shift that has signaled a new era of how we interact with our media.

In this reading, Hurst describes how kids now days are growing up with digital media all around them, which is unique compared to all previous generations.  The youth of today have various forms of digital media that is all networked together.  Hurst notes that this could be considered an ecology because these technologies are so intertwined in their lives that they are inseparable.

Hurst then goes on to describe three different genres of participation of digital media.  The first is “hanging out,”  which is the least technical of the three.  This group is defined by people who want to come together and engage with new media to create and maintain friendships.  The next genre is “messing around.”  This group’s focus is more on the interaction itself with the new media as opposed to the social aspect.  The last genre is called “geeking out” and describes people with an intense interest with the media property or technology.  As most people know, geeks are people who usually take their interest in something a whole new (sometimes unhealthy) level.  These three genres are very good at encompassing the range in which people today may interact with new media technology.

de Mul – Digital Material Reading Summary

The article starts off by talking about how art has been changed by technology.  “Media are interfaces that mediate not only between us and our world (designation), but also between us and our fellow man (communication), and between us and ourselves (self-understanding).”  de Mul states that the “aesthetic experience’, like photographs and film are no different.  The article then mentions Walter Benjamin’s views of the transformation of cult value to exhibition value.  Mul argues that exhibition value is being replaced by manipulation value.

Cult value, as stated by Benjamin, has to do with aura and the uniqueness of the work of art in categories of time and space.  Exhibition value replaced cult value because of the continuous copies being made of the original piece of artwork.  Manipulation value, as argued by de Mul, has replaced exhibition value.  de Mul believes this because technology has now not only allowed for copying works of art, it has now allowed manipulation of it.  Works of art can now be edited to mean different things.